|Title||Advance Directives among Nursing Home Residents with Mild, Moderate, and Advanced Dementia|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Tjia J., Dharmawardene M., Givens J.L|
|Journal||J Palliat Med|
|Keywords||*Advance Directives, *dementia, *nursing home|
OBJECTIVE: To describe prevalence and content of AD documentation among NH residents by dementia stage. BACKGROUND: The prevalence of advance directives (ADs) among nursing home (NH) residents with mild, moderate, and advanced dementia remains unclear. METHODS: Population-based, cross-sectional study of all licensed NHs in five U.S. states. Subjects included all long-stay (>90 day) NH residents with dementia, aged >/=65 years, and a Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) score >/=1 from the 2007 to 2008 Minimum Data Set 2.0 (n = 180,621). Dementia severity was classified as follows: mild (CPS 1-2), moderate (CPS 3-4), and advanced (CPS 5-6). MEASUREMENTS: ADs were defined as the presence of a living will, do-not-resuscitate order, do-not-hospitalize order, medication restriction, or feeding restriction). RESULTS: Overall, 59% of residents had any AD and 17% had a living will. Prevalence of any AD increased by dementia severity: mild (51.2%), moderate (58.2%), and advanced (61.5%) (p < 0.001). In adjusted analysis, resident characteristics associated with any AD documentation included older age, female gender, being white, and having more severe dementia. Having a living will was associated with higher education (>/=high school graduate vs. some high school or less) and being married. DISCUSSION: While dementia severity was associated with greater likelihood of having documented any AD, almost 4 in 10 residents with dementia lacked any AD. Effective outreach may focus efforts on subgroups with lower odds of any AD or living wills, including non-white, less educated, and unmarried NH residents. A greater understanding of how such factors impact care planning will help to address barriers to patient-centered care for this population.
|Alternate Journal||Journal of palliative medicine|