Delirium: Pathophysiology, recognition, prevention and treatment

TitleDelirium: Pathophysiology, recognition, prevention and treatment
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsRabinowitz T., Murphy K.M, Nagle K.J, Bodor C.I, Kennedy S.M, Hirdes J.P
JournalExpert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Volume3
Issue3
Pagination343-355
Keywords*delirium/di [Diagnosis], *delirium/dt [Drug Therapy], 52-86-8 (haloperidol). 50-53-3, 69-09-0 (chlorpromazine). 130-61-0, 50-52-2 (thioridazine). 548-73-2 (droperidol). 118289-78-4, 122883-93-6, 138982-67-9, 199191-69-0 (ziprasidone). 846-49-1 (lorazepam). 604-75-1 (oxazepam). 846-50-4 (temazepam). 120011-, Adult, Aged, akathisia/si [Side Effect], chlorpromazine/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction], chlorpromazine/cm [Drug Comparison], chlorpromazine/dt [Drug Therapy], chlorpromazine/pd [Pharmacology], cognitive defect, confusion, controlled study, disease association, disease course, donepezil/dt [Drug Therapy], dose response, droperidol/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction], droperidol/cm [Drug Comparison], droperidol/dt [Drug Therapy], droperidol/pd [Pharmacology], dystonia/si [Side Effect], extrapyramidal symptom/si [Side Effect], Family, Female, haloperidol/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction], haloperidol/cm [Drug Comparison], haloperidol/cr [Drug Concentration], haloperidol/dt [Drug Therapy], haloperidol/iv [Intravenous Drug Administration], haloperidol/pd [Pharmacology], haloperidol/pk [Pharmacokinetics], heart arrhythmia/si [Side Effect], heart muscle conduction disturbance/si [Side Effect], Hospitalization, Human, hypotension/si [Side Effect], length of stay, lorazepam/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction], lorazepam/dt [Drug Therapy], major clinical study, Male, mortality, neuroleptic agent/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction], neuroleptic agent/cm [Drug Comparison], neuroleptic agent/dt [Drug Therapy], neuroleptic agent/pd [Pharmacology], nursing home, oxazepam/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction], oxazepam/dt [Drug Therapy], parkinsonism/si [Side Effect], pathophysiology, patient care, primary medical care, restlessness/si [Side Effect], review, rivastigmine/dt [Drug Therapy], sedation, seizure/si [Side Effect], social support, temazepam/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction], temazepam/dt [Drug Therapy], thioridazine/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction], thioridazine/cm [Drug Comparison], thioridazine/dt [Drug Therapy], thioridazine/pd [Pharmacology], torsade des pointes/si [Side Effect], treatment planning, ziprasidone/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction], ziprasidone/dt [Drug Therapy], ziprasidone/im [Intramuscular Drug Administration], ziprasidone/na [Intranasal Drug Administration]
Abstract

Delirium, a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of confusion, indicates that there is a disruption in physiological equilibrium that may lead to death unless quick and appropriate action is taken. Despite its frequent appearance, delirium often goes unrecognized, undetected and untreated, leading to poorer outcomes including longer lengths of hospitalization, persistent deficits in cognitive function and the need for nursing home placement following acute treatment. Prevention and treatment strategies do not need to be complex or expensive, but require well co-ordinated interventions from multiple disciplines including nursing, psychiatry, neurology and primary care, as well as the co-operation and significant effort of family and friends who know the affected individual well.