Fracture Risk Assessment in Long-term Care (FRAiL): Development and Validation of a Prediction Model

TitleFracture Risk Assessment in Long-term Care (FRAiL): Development and Validation of a Prediction Model
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBerry S.D, Zullo A.R, Lee Y., Mor V., McConeghy K.W, Banerjee G., D'Agostino, Sr. R.B, Daiello L., Dosa D., Kiel D.P
JournalJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
Date PublishedMay 9
ISBN Number1079-5006
Accession Number28958013
Keywords*Nursing Homes, *Risk Assessment, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Female, Hip Fractures/*epidemiology, Humans, Male, Medicare, Predictive Value of Tests, Risk Factors, United States/epidemiology

Background: Strategies used to predict fracture in community-dwellers may not be useful in the nursing home (NH). Our objective was to develop and validate a model (Fracture Risk Assessment in Long-term Care [FRAiL]) to predict the 2-year risk of hip fracture in NH residents using readily available clinical characteristics. Methods: The derivation cohort consisted of 419,668 residents between May 1, 2007 and April 30, 2008 in fee-for service Medicare. Hip fractures were identified using Part A diagnostic codes. Resident characteristics were obtained using the Minimum Data Set and Part D claims. Multivariable competing risk regression was used to model 2-year risk of hip fracture. We validated the model in a remaining 1/3 sample (n = 209,834) and in a separate cohort in 2011 (n = 858,636). Results: Mean age was 84 years (range 65-113 years) and 74.5% were female. During 1.8 years mean follow-up, 14,553 residents (3.5%) experienced a hip fracture. Fifteen characteristics in the final model were associated with an increased risk of hip fracture including dementia severity, ability to transfer and walk independently, prior falls, wandering, and diabetes. In the derivation sample, the concordance index was 0.69 in men and 0.71 in women. Calibration was excellent. Results were similar in the internal and external validation samples. Conclusions: The FRAiL model was developed specifically to identify NH residents at greatest risk for hip fracture, and it identifies a different pattern of risk factors compared with community models. This practical model could be used to screen NH residents for fracture risk and to target intervention strategies.

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Short TitleJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
Alternate JournalThe journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences