Diseases, Health-Related Problems, and the Incidence of Malnutrition in Long-Term Care Facilities

TitleDiseases, Health-Related Problems, and the Incidence of Malnutrition in Long-Term Care Facilities
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsBorkent JW, van Hout HPJ, Feskens EJM, Naumann E, de van der Schueren MAE
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ISBN Number1660-4601
Accession Number36833865
Keywords*Long-Term Care, *Malnutrition/epidemiology, Cross-Sectional Studies, Incidence, InterRAI, Long-term care facilities, Nursing Homes, Nutritional Status, Older adults, Prevalence, undernutrition

Certain diseases and malnutrition are known to co-occur in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF). We assessed which diseases and health-related problems are associated with malnutrition at admission or with incident malnutrition during stays and how different definitions of malnutrition affect these associations. Data of Dutch LTCF residents were obtained from the InterRAI-LTCF instrument (2005-2020). We analyzed the association of diseases (diabetes, cancer, pressure ulcers, neurological, musculoskeletal, psychiatric, cardiac, infectious and pulmonary diseases) and health-related problems (aspiration, fever, peripheral edema, aphasia, pain, supervised/assisted eating, balance, psychiatric, GI tract, sleep, dental and locomotion problems) with malnutrition (recent weight loss (WL), low age-specific BMI (BMI), and ESPEN 2015 definition (ESPEN)) at admission (n = 3713), as well as with incident malnutrition during stay (n = 3836, median follow-up ~1 year). Malnutrition prevalence at admission ranged from 8.8% (WL) to 27.4% (BMI); incident malnutrition during stay ranged from 8.9% (ESPEN) to 13.8% (WL). At admission, most diseases (except cardiometabolic diseases) and health-related problems were associated with higher prevalence of malnutrition based on either criterion, but strongest with WL. This was also seen in the prospective analysis, but relationships were less strong compared to the cross-sectional analysis. A considerable number of diseases and health-related problems are associated with an increased prevalence of malnutrition at admission and incident malnutrition during stays in LTCFs. At admission, low BMI is a good indicator of malnutrition; during stays, we advise use of WL.





Short TitleInternational journal of environmental research and public health