Developing quality indicators for in-patient post-acute care

TitleDeveloping quality indicators for in-patient post-acute care
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsMorris JN, Berg K, Topinkova E, Gray LC, Schachter E
JournalBMC geriatrics
ISBN Number1471-2318
Accession Number29996767

BACKGROUND: This paper describes an integrated series of functional, clinical, and discharge post-acute care (PAC) quality indicators (QIs) and an examination of the distribution of the QIs in skilled nursing facilities (SNF) across the US. The indicators use items available in interRAI based assessments including the MDS 3.0 and are designed for use in in-patient post-acute environments that use the assessments. METHODS: Data Source: MDS 3.0 computerized assessments mandated for all patients admitted to US skilled nursing facilities (SNF) in 2012. In total, 2,380,213 patients were admitted to SNFs for post-acute care. Definition of the QI numerator, denominator and covariate structures were based on MDS assessment items. A regression strategy modeling the "discharge to the community" PAC QI as the dependent variable was used to identify how to bring together a subset of seven candidate PAC QIs for inclusion in a summary scale. Finally, the distributional property of the summary scale (the PAC QI Summary Scale) across all facilities was explored. RESULTS: The risk-adjusted PAC QIs include indicators of improved status, including measures of early, middle, and late-loss functional performance, as well as measures of walking and changed clinical status and an overall summary functional scale. Many but not all patients demonstrated improvement from baseline to follow-up. However, there was substantial inter-state variation in the summary QI scores across the SNFs. CONCLUSIONS: The set of PAC QIs consist of five functional, two discharge and eight clinical measures, and one summary scale. All QIs can be derived from multiple interRAI assessment tools, including the MDS 2.0, interRAI-LTCF, MDS 3.0, and the interRAI-PAC-Rehab. These measures are appropriate for wide distribution in and out of the United States, allowing comparison and discussion of practices associated with better outcomes.