The Association of Service Use and Other Client Factors with the Time to Transition from Home Care to Facility-Based Care

TitleThe Association of Service Use and Other Client Factors with the Time to Transition from Home Care to Facility-Based Care
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsTate K., Hoben M., Grabusic C., Bailey S., Cummings G.G
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
Keywords*assisted living facility, *nursing home, Aged, Alberta, article, caregiver support, cohort analysis, controlled study, Demography, Exercise, Female, health care utilization, Human, information system, institutionalization, Male, physiotherapy, resident, retrospective study, socialization

Objectives: People are living longer with complex health needs and wish to remain in their homes as their care needs change. We examined which client factors (sociodemographic, health service use, health, and function) influenced older persons' (>=65 years) time to transition from home living to assisted living (AL) or long-term care (LTC) facilities. Design(s): Retrospective cohort study. Setting and Participants: Long-term services and supports in Alberta, Canada. Long-stay home care clients (>=65 years) who received a Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (RAI-HC) assessment between 2014 and 2018. Measures: We assessed time from initial receipt of long-term home care to AL and LTC facility transitions, using Cox proportional hazard regressions, and a provincial continuing care data repository (Alberta Continuing Care Information System). We adjusted for client sociodemographic, health, function, and health service use variables. The outcome was time from initial long-term home care receipt to transition to facility living. Result(s): We included 33,432 home care clients. Clients who were visited by care aides once in the last 7 days transitioned to AL later than those with no care aide visits [hazard ratio (HR) 0.976, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.852, 0.964]. Clients receiving physical therapy services once or more a week transitioned to LTC later than those who did not receive these services (HR 0.767, CI 0.672, 0.875). Institutionalizations happened sooner if the client's caregiver was unable to continue (AL: HR 1.335, CI 1.306, 1.365; LTC: HR 1.339, CI 1.245, 1.441) and if clients socialized less (AL: HR 1.149, CI 1.079, 1.223; LTC: HR 1.087, CI 1.018, 1.61). Conclusions and Implications: The diverse role of care aides needs to be explored to determine which specific services help to delay AL transitions. Physical therapy exercises that require minimal supervision should be integrated early into care plans to delay LTC transitions. Social/recreational programs to improve older adults' socialization and informal caregiver support could delay transitions.Copyright © 2021